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Poster Boys No More

1 January, 2009



Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. Background to the DDR/SSR Process

3. Gender Roles in Timor-Leste
3.1 Women and girls
3.2 Men and boys

4. Violence, Insecurity and Gender
4.1 Masculinities and the legitimacy of violence
4.2 Patrons and clients
4.3 Gender-based violence

5. FALINTIL-Forças de Defesa de Timor-Leste (F-FDTL)
5.1 Structure
5.2 Recruitment and training
5.3 Internal tensions and external problems

6. Policía Nacional de Timor-Leste (PNTL)
6.1 Structure
6.2 Recruitment and training
6.3 GBV and the Vulnerable Persons Units
6.4 Internal and external problems of the PNTL

7. The 2006 Crisis
7.1 Overview of events
7.2 Aftermath of the crisis

8. Overview of Post-2006 SSR Developments
8.1 The F-FDTL
8.2 The PNTL
8.3 The SSR process

9. Analysis and Policy Recommendations

Appendix 1. Timeline of key events from 1974-2009

Appendix 2. Overview of UN Missions in Timor-Leste 1999-2009


Gender analysis of actual SSR processes is sorely lacking in the SSR literature. In ‘Poster Boys No More: Gender and Security Sector Reform in Timor-Leste’ Henri Myrttinen breaks new ground in examining the gender dimensions of the DDR and SSR processes in Timor-Leste, with a focus on the establishment of the police and armed forces. The paper explores issues such as: how men’s roles relate to gang violence and relationships of patronage that undermine the security services, how women have been incorporated into the new security services and how the security services are addressing gender-based violence. It shows how a gender perspective can add to our understanding of many of the social processes at work in Timor-Leste and help to find solutions to some of the main security issues in the country, making recommendations for Timor-Leste’s ongoing SSR processes.