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Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR)

1 January, 2005



Table of Contents

1. Introduction
1.1. Hell and Heaven
1.2. Objectives
1.3. Procedure and methodology

2. DDR: Terms, contents and understanding
2.1. What is DDR? (1): Terms and definitions
2.2. "Old hat" or a "truly novel issue"?
2.3. The "Integrated Approach" of the UNDPKO
2.4. Integrated Approach, Peacebuilding Consensus and Democratic Peace
2.5. What is DDR? (2): More than the sequence of "D-D-R".

3. Analysis and comparison of specific contexts
3.1. Conflict analysis
3.2. Post-conflict analysis
3.3. Characteristics of combatants and units ("Objects")
3.4. Profiles of the responsible actors ("Subjects")
3.5. Overview: Context groups

4. Analysis and comparison of different conceptual approaches
4.1. Positioning of DDR in the peace process ("Sequencing")
4.2. Interplay with other instruments of the peace process
4.3. Actors, ownership, control and responsibility
4.4. Area-specific approaches and exit strategies

5. Discussion: Dilemmas, target conflicts and clashes of interests
5.1. The basic dilemma and its facets: Stabilisation vs. sustainable development
5.2. "Specific transitional reintegration" or "Post-conflict reconstruction"?
5.3. 'Ownership' and clashes of interest
5.4. 'Democratic peace' in post-conflict societies
5.5. To intervene or to look on, to implement or wait?
5.6. Final conclusion

A1. Overview of DDR-processes since 1990 and their evaluation
A2. Evaluation of the case studies and short case analyses


This paper is based on a Masters thesis submitted to the Masters of International Affairs and Governance (MIA) program at the University of St. Gallen,Switzerland, in 2005. It addresses problems of disarmament, demobilisation andreintegration (DDR) in seven case studies: Afghanistan, Angola, Burundi, Haiti, theDemocratic Republic of Congo, Liberia and Columbia. The case studies primarily reflect post-conflict and developmental contexts and thereby distinguish themselves from transitional DDR environments, such as South- and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia and South Africa in the 1990’s.

There are different understandings of the concept of disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration in the existing literature and Rufer’s paper has the merit of bringing some terminological and theoretical clarifications. Most important, the DDR concept is far from being static.

The paper identifies traits that are common to various postconflict and developmental DDR contexts. In its theorizing attempt, the paper rightfully points out to the existence of two military driven processes, disarmament and demobilization (DD). It considers reintegration (R) mainly a civilian driven process that can, in particular circumstances, be supported by ministries of defence. Most often, rifts and tensions between, on the one hand, DD, and, on the other hand, R appear. As DDR processes are directly contributing to the establishment of the rule of law and the formation of democratic structures, such tensions affect the whole post-conflict democratization process.